Uromys Peters, 1867 is re-defined so that it is monophyletic. The clade includes nine species placed in two monophyletic subgenera: U. (Cyromys) includes the species porculus, rex and imperator; U. (Uromys) includes the species anak, neobritannicus, hadrourus, caudimaculatus, emmae n.sp. and boeadii n.sp. Uromys (Cyromys) includes more plesiomorphic species, which are all restricted to Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. Species of U. (Uromys) are more derived, as in their possession of greatly simplified molars, and in having the number of interdental ridges of the soft palate greatly multiplied. The genus is widespread in Melanesia and northern Australia. Three distinct subspecies of U. caudimaculatus, and three of U. anak (one new) are recognised. Uromys boeadii n.sp., from Biak Island, and Uromys emmae n.sp., from Owi Island, both in Geelvinck Bay, are newly described.