The genus Bodianus (family Labridae), distributed in tropical and warm temperate waters of the three major oceans, comprises at least 43 species, eight of which are described here as new. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, 10 subgenera are recognized, three taking new names. The subgenera include: the Western Pacific Priobodianus n.subgen. with the two species B. cylindriatus and B. thoracotaeniatus; the Indo-West Pacific Trochocopus with the eight species B. bimaculatus, B. izuensis, B. masudai, B. neopercularis n.sp. (Marshall Islands), B. opercularis, B. sanguineus, B. sepiacaudus n.sp. (Indonesia and Pacific Line Islands) and B. tanyokidus; the monotypic Eastern Atlantic Pseudolepidaplois with B. scrofa; the antitropical Verreo with the six Pacific species B. bathycapros n.sp. (Hawaiian Islands), B. flavifrons, B. flavipinnis, B. frenchii, B. oxycephalus and B. unimaculatus, and the southwestern Australian B. vulpinus; the Indo-West Pacific Peneverreo n.subgen. with the four species B. leucosticticus, B. paraleucosticticus n.sp. (Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia and Rarotonga), B. rubrisos n.sp. (Japan, Taiwan and Indonesia) and B. trilineatus; the Indo-Pacific Paralepidaplois n.subgen. with the three allopatric species B. diana (Indian Ocean), B. dictynna n.sp. (Western Pacific) and B. prognathus; the Indo-Pacific Lepidaplois with the three species B. axillaris, B. mesothorax and B. neilli; the monotypic Indo-Pacific Euhypsocara with B. anthioides; Diastodon with the eight Indo-Pacific species B. albotaeniatus, B. bilunulatus, B. busellatus n.sp. (south central Pacific), B. loxozonus, B. macrognathos, B. macrourus, B. perditio, and B. solatus n.sp. (western Australia), and the Eastern Atlantic B. speciosus; and, Bodianus with the Atlantic B. insularis, B. pulchellus and B. rufus, and the Eastern Pacific B. diplotaenia and B. eclancheri. Separate keys to species occurring in the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic-eastern Pacific regions are provided.