The Museum collection of Stomatopoda is the most extensive existent Australian assemblage of the group, but only a minority of the specimens have been reported upon in publications (see Whitelegge, 1900; MeNeill, 1926, 1952; Hynd in MS., 1948; Serene 1950, 1952; Stephenson 1953a). In the present paper the entire collection is detailed, and the records add considerably to the known distributions of several species. Eight species recorded from Australia by past workers (including one of us, W.S.) but not present in the collection, are also listed, thus completing a check list of the known Australian species. A comprehensive key is provided, and this includes species which might be confused with the Australian stomatopod fauna, and also widespread Indo-Pacific species which might be found to occur in Northern Australian waters after more intensive investigation.
The synonymy quoted includes the original author, but excludes most other sources prior to Kemp's (1913) monograph. These are only included where Kemp's synonymy appears at fault or where additional or better figures of the species are given.
Lengths of specimens are measured in a mid-dorsal line from the posterior end of the telson (as near as practicable, excluding spines) to the anterior edge of the carapace, excluding the rostrum. Owing to body curvature, the varying extension of the abdomen and, in some cases, the lack of clear demarcation between bases of spines and posterior margins of telsons, lengths are only accurate to about c. 1 per cent.
Records of specimens received at the Zoology Department, University of Queensland too late to be published in earlier papers (Stephenson 1952, 1953a,b) have been added to the present collection, and are indicated in the text by asterisks.
Localities are arranged under their respective Australian States, and in cases where locality lists within a State are extensive, a geographical north to south arrangement is presented.