This monograph reviews the alpha taxonomy of the scincid lizards of New Caledonia (excluding the Loyalty Islands group). It also touches on the beta taxonomy of the species where possible but leaves much of this problem to a future review of phylogenetic relationships of the Lygosomine lineage of which New Caledonian species are a part. The following 10 genera including 24 species are recognized: Geoscincus n. gen.: G. haraldmeieri (Böhme); Phoboscincus Greer, 1974: P. bocourti (Brocchi), P. garnieri (Bavay); Graciliscincus n. gen.: G. shonae n. sp.; Leiolopisma Duméril & Bibron, 1839: L. nigrofasciolatum (Peters), L. greeri Böhme, L. steindachneri (Bocage), L. novaecaledoniae (Parker); Tropidoscincus Bocage, 1873: T. variabilis (Bavay), T. aubrianus Bocage, T. rohssii (Anderson); Marmorosphax n. gen.: M. tricolor (Bavay), M. euryotis (Werner); Caledoniscincus n. gen.: C. austrocaledonicus (Bavay), C. atropunctatus (Roux), C. jestivus (Roux), C. orestes n. sp.; Sigaloseps n. gen.: S. deplanchei (Bavay); Cryptoblepharus Weigmann, 1834: C. novocaledonicus Mertens; Nannoscincus Günther, 1872: N. mariei (Bavay), N. gracilis (Bavay), N. sleveni (Loveridge), N. rankini n. sp., N. greeri n. sp. Most of the recognised species are endemic to the main island and most are confined to rainforest habitats. Some also occur on adjacent offshore islands. Generic accounts contain synonymies, diagnostic features and lists of species included. Keys are provided for monophyletic genera with more than two species. Species accounts contain data on synonymies, diagnostic features, types, morphology, habits, distribution, historical and taxonomic remarks, and specimens examined.