The podocerid genera Cyrtophium, Icilius, Laetmatophilus, Leipsuropus, and Podocerus have been investigated to elucidate their generic characters. Four of these genera are very closely related, with only minor differences between them; Icilius has proved to be non-corophioidean and is removed from Podoceridae. The family Iciliidae, and a new podocerid genus Styloxenodice, to accommodate Xenodice macrophthalma, are diagnosed. Four groups of genera are recognised within Podoceridae, and are given subfamilial status: Podocerinae, Xenodicinae, Neoxenodicinae, and Dulichiinae. It is suggested that Podoceridae is derived from a basic corophioidean Gammaropsis-typeancestor through an ancestral form that would have been similar to Styloxenodice.