Two new species of Periclimenes caught in traps at Lizard Island, Queensland, P. lacertae and P. priodactylus, are described. Periclimenes denticulatus Nobili, P. agag Kemp and Periclimenes laccadivensis (Alcock & Anderson) are reported from Australia for the first time. Further information is presented on other Australian specimens of Periclimenes, P. platycheles Holthuis, P. attenuatus Bruce, P. amboinensis (De Man), and on Parapontonia nudirostris Bruce, with remarks on some non-Australian specimens of Periclimenes, P. lanipes Kemp, P. pholeter Holthuis and P. consobrinus Balss (non De Man). The extraordinary occurrence of P. pholeter in traps at 1825 m in the Red Sea, previously known only from anchialine habitats, represents the greatest depth from which a palaemonid shrimp has so far been recorded. Its first occurrence in the western Pacific Ocean is also recorded.