At present, fifty one species of shrimp are known to live in association with Indo-West Pacific echinoderms. Of these, only one is a stenopodidean, all others belong to the Caridea, principally to the subfamily Pontoniinae (35 species), with the others in the families Alpheidae 01 species) and the Gnathophyllidae (4 species). The echinoderm hosts may belong to any class but are mainly the Crinoidea (26 species), Echinoidea (18 species) and Asteroidea (18 species), although only a very small number of shrimp species are associated with the latter class. Three ophiuroids, all basket stars, and eight species of holothurians are known to have shrimp associates. The available knowledge of the biology of these associations is outlined.
Keys for the provisional identification of these shrimps are provided and one new species, Periclimenes ruber, is described and illustrated. The distribution of the shrimps is outlined and the known hosts listed.