The family Aphroditidae is represented in Australian waters and the Indonesian Archipelago by 34 species in five genera, of which seven are new species. Previously described species from Australia are redescribed. The Aphroditidae collected during the Siboga expedition and described by Horst (1916a,b, 1917) are also redescribed and the relationship of this fauna to the Australian fauna discussed. In addition, the characters used to distinguish genera and species within the family and the variations exhibited by these characters are discussed, to facilitate a subsequent phylogenetic study of the group. A key to the genera and species represented in the Indo-Pacific is given.