The polycirrine fauna of Australia comprises four genera and 22 species. These are described, and a key to the genera and Australian species are provided. Eleven new species are described: Hauchiella renilla n. sp., Lysilla laciniata n. sp., L. bilobata n. sp., L. jennacubinae n. sp., Polycirrus bicrinalis n. sp., P. disjunctus n. sp., P. nephrosus n. sp., P. parvus n. sp., P. paucidens n. sp., P. tesselatus n. sp. and P. variabilis n. sp., and the following new combinations, Amaeana apheles (Hutchings) and Polycirrus octoseta (Hutchings). A full description of all Australian species of this subfamily is given except when a recent full description is available. Comments are made on the variety of characters which have been used to describe species of Polycirrus and the value of these characters.