The caprellid fauna of the Great Barrier Reef region is investigated. The study reports 22 species in 17 genera. Three new genera and seven new species are described (Hircella berentsae n.sp., Jigurru vailhoggett n.gen., n.sp., Mayericaprella arimotoi n.gen., n.sp., Orthoprotella pearce n.sp., Perotripus keablei n.sp., Pseudoprellicana johnsoni n.gen., n.sp. and Quadrisegmentum lowryi n.sp.). All species are figured and a key to the species is provided. An ecological study conducted at Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef, showed that Metaprotella sandalensis Mayer, 1898 and Quadrisegmentum triangulum Hirayama, 1988, were the most common species in the coral reef system. Although the caprellids were present at most sites around the Island, they were abundant only on hydroid and sediment substrate.