The moray eels of Australia and New Zealand, with the description of two new species (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae)
Australian and New Zealand moray eel type specimens in museums have been re-examined, their identities established, and brief descriptions of the specimens written. A key to the 59 muraenid species of Australia and New Zealand is presented. Ten species that have remained relatively unknown or inadequately described are redescribed and illustrated: Gymnothorax annasona Whitley, 1937; G. atolli (Pietschmann, 1935); G. cribroris Whitley, 1932a; G. longinquus (Whitley, 1948); G. nubilus (Richardson, 1848); G. obesus (Whitley, 1932a); G. porphyreus (Guichenot, 1848); G. prasinus (Richardson, 1848); G. prionodon Ogilby, 1895; and G. woodwardi McCulloch, 1912. A new species from northern Australia is described as G. cephalospilus, and one from southern Australia is described as G. austrinus. New synonymies are proposed: Muraena helena australis Richardson, 1848, and Muraena vorax Ogilby, 1907 = Muraena helena Linnaeus, 1758; Muraena euptera Günther, 1870 = Gymnothorax nubilus Richardson, 1848; Muraena tuhua Griffin, 1933, and Gymnothorax griffini Whitley & Phillipps, 1939 = Gymnothorax obesus (Whitley, 1932a); Gymnothorax maculaepinnis Bleeker, 1866, and Gymnothorax leecote Scott, 1965 = Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson, 1848); and Muraena mieroszewskii Steindachner, 1896, Gymnothorax leucostigma Jordan & Richardson, 1909, Gymnothorax nirosus Tanaka, 1918, Muraena shirleyi Griffin, 1933, and Lycodontis wooliensis Whitley, 1968 = Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby, 1895. Australian morays considered to be nomena dubia are: Anarchias insuetus Whitley, 1932b; Gymnothorax dakini Whitley & Colefax, 1938; Gymnothorax garsiae Whitley & Colefax, 1938; and Gymnothorax scriptus Schneider, 1801. Miscellaneous notes on the changes made to the listing of Australian morays by Paxton et al. (1989), a discussion of the distributions of Australian and New Zealand morays, and an index to all names are provided.