Taxonomy and distribution of 14 Recent Australian species of the family Nuculidae Gray, 1824 are described and discussed. Available data on biology and ecology are added. Illustrations and distribution maps of all species are given.
The genera Pronucula Hedley, 1902, and Deminucula Iredale, 1931, are considered synonyms of Nucula Lamarck, 1799. Rumptunucula is proposed as a new genus for Pronucula vincentiana Cotton and Godfrey, 1938. Lectotypes are selected for Nucula pusilla Angas, 1877, Nucula micans Angas, 1878, Nucula torresi Smith, 1885, Nucula dilecta Smith, 1891, Nucula hedleyi Pritchard and Gatliff, 1904, Deminucula praetenta Iredale, 1924, Pronucula mayi Iredale, 1930, and Pronucula saltator Iredale, 1939. Nucula micans Angas, Nucula hedleyi Pritchard and Gatliff, and Pronucula concentrica Cotton, 1930 are considered synonyms of Nucula pusilla Angas. Pronucula voorwindei Bergmans, 1969 is synonymized with Nucula torresi Smith. Nucula diaphana Prashad, 1932 and Pronucula flindersi Cotton, 1930 are ranked as subspecies of Nucula dilecta Smith. The study also includes Pronucula decorosa Hedley, 1902, Nucula beachportensis Verco, 1907, and Pronucula australiensis Thiele, 1930, while four new species are described: Nucula revei, Nucula covra, Nucula papuensis and Nucula brongersmai. Notes on the zoogeography of the species involved are given.