The Australian Stomatopod fauna is comprehensively revised. Two new genera, Belosquilla and Quollastria, are recognized. Seventy-two species are newly reported from Australia, of which 26 are described as new. Bathysquilloidea is represented by 2 genera and 3 species; Erythrosquilloidea by 1 genus and species; Eurysquilloidea by 5 genera and 8 species; Gonodactyloidea by 15 genera and 46 species; Lysiosquilloidea by 13 genera and 26 species; Parasquilloidea by 2 genera and 3 species; and Squilloidea by 25 genera and 59 species. Harpiosquillidae is synonymized with Squillidae. Gonodactylinus is synonymized with Gonodactylellus, Keijia with Carinosquilla, Raoulius with Odontodactylus, Laevosquilla with Siamosquilla and Toshimitsu with Lophosquilla. The results of the present study double the known stomatopod fauna of Australian waters, now totalling 146 species and 63 genera, in 7 superfamilies and 14 familiesabout 50% of species and almost 74% of genera from the Indo-West Pacific. Forty-six species (32% of the Australian fauna) are presently known only from Australia. Species richness and abundance of the Australian fauna is likely to be much greater than that implied by the composition of existing collections. Many habitats remain to be specifically targeted for stomatopods and future sampling will likely yield many more species from Australia. All Australian species are illustrated and diagnosed. Keys to the world genera and all species in Australian genera are provided.